Effects of Salinity on Growth and In Vitro Ichthyotoxicity of Three Strains of Karenia mikimotoi

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

2 Scopus Citations
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Author(s)

  • Winnie Lam
  • Emily Man-Shan Cheung
  • Nora Fung-Yee Tam
  • Thomas Chun-Hung Lee
  • Celia Sze-Nga Kwok
  • And 3 others
  • Kaze King-Yip Lai
  • Steven Jingliang Xu
  • Fred Wang-Fat Lee

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Article number1236
Journal / PublicationJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Volume10
Issue number9
Online published3 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

Link(s)

Abstract

Karenia mikimotoi is one of the most damaging ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate species commonly found in China. However, its growth and ichthyotoxicity responses to salinity changes are still largely unknown. In this study, the growth and ichthyotoxicity of three K. mikimotoi strains, Hong Kong strain KMHK, Japanese strain NIES2411 and New Zealand strain CAWD133, under different salinities (25 to 35 ppt), initial algal densities (5 to 40 thousand cells) and growth phases were investigated. Results indicated that the optimum salinity for all three strains was 30 ppt. The Japanese strain achieved the highest maximum cell densities (cells mL−1) and the New Zealand strain achieved the highest specific growth rate. The Hong Kong and New Zealand strains could not tolerate the low salinity at 25 ppt and the algal cells burst after 3 days of exposure. The average cell widths of all three algal strains in 35 ppt salinity were significantly larger than that in 30 ppt. The acute toxicity test performed on Oncorhynchus mykiss gill cell line RTgill-W1 revealed that the median lethal times for KMHK and NIES2411 were 66.9 and 31.3 min, respectively, and their ichthyotoxicity was significantly affected by algal cell density and growth phase. Nevertheless, CAWD133 did not pose any ichthyotoxicity. The gill cell viability levels at 30 min were reduced from 96 to 61% and 95 to 39% for KMHK and NIES2411, respectively, when the algal cell density increased from 5 × 103 to 4 × 104 algal cells mL−1. Both KMHK and NIES2411 at stationary phase also had higher toxicity than at log phase, with a 27% reduction of gill cell viability, and exerted higher toxicity to the gill cells under extremely low (28 ppt) or high (35 ppt) salinity. These findings demonstrated that the growth–ichthyotoxicity response of Karenia mikimotoi to salinity was not only strain-specific but also depended on its density and growth phase. Study on the effects of salinity on the growth and toxicity of K. mikimotoi is greatly limited. Results from the present study provide valuable insight on the growth and toxicity of different K. mikimotoi strains, which is important in understanding their occurrence of algal bloom and fish-killing action. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Research Area(s)

  • harmful algal bloom, ichthyotoxicity, Karenia mikimotoi, salinity

Citation Format(s)

Effects of Salinity on Growth and In Vitro Ichthyotoxicity of Three Strains of Karenia mikimotoi. / Lam, Winnie; Cheung, Emily Man-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee et al.
In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 9, 1236, 09.2022.

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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