Personnel safety problems on the construction sites are still serious concerns, which need to be particularly emphasized and mitigated. In recent times, safety culture and safety citizenship behavior are considered influential to promote the safety of construction personnel. However, no study has focused on analyzing the correlation between safety culture and safety citizenship behavior of construction workers in a quantitative way, and the lack of relevant research can cause obstacles to the safety development of the construction industry. Therefore, this study was carried out to examine the correlation between safety culture and safety citizenship behavior among construction personnel working onsite by conducting a questionnaire survey with 140 respondents in China. The data were analyzed using statistical approaches, such as Pearson correlation analysis, structural equation modeling, and linear regression modeling, that the underlying mechanisms of the influence were verified. The findings provide both practical and theoretical contributions to the industrial field, which highlight the importance of effective relationship exchange and working culture promotion among organizations.