Dynamical mode recognition of triple flickering buoyant diffusion flames in Wasserstein space

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Original languageEnglish
Article number112526
Journal / PublicationCombustion and Flame
Online published8 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


Triple flickering buoyant diffusion flames in an isosceles triangle arrangement, as a nonlinear dynamical system of coupled oscillators, were experimentally studied. The focus of the study is two-fold: we established a well-controlled gas-fuel diffusion flame experiment, which well remedies the deficiencies of prevalent candle-flame experiments, and we developed a Wasserstein-space-based methodology for dynamical mode recognition, which is validated in the present triple-flame systems but can be readily generalized to the dynamical systems consisting of an arbitrary finite number of flames. By use of the present experiment and methodology, seven distinct stable dynamical modes were recognized, such as the in-phase mode, the flickering death mode, the partially flickering death mode, the partially in-phase mode, the rotation mode, the partially decoupled mode, and the decoupled mode. These modes unify the literature results for the triple flickering flame system in the straight-line and equal-lateral triangle arrangements. Compared with the mode recognitions in physical space and phase space, the Wasserstein-space-based methodology avoids personal subjectivity and is more applicable in high-dimensional systems, as it is based on the concept of distance between distribution functions of phase points. Consequently, the identification or discrimination of two dynamical modes can be quantified as the small or large Wasserstein distance, respectively. © 2022 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Research Area(s)

  • Flickering diffusion flame, Nonlinear dynamical system, Dynamical mode, Phase space, Wasserstein space, INSTABILITY, OSCILLATION, COMBUSTION, FLOW