Domain dimensionality and temporality of outcome expectancy for physical activity among middle-aged and older Chinese adults : A latent profile analysis

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-691
Journal / PublicationPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013


Objectives: Using a person-centered approach, this study aimed to identify the profiles of outcome expectancy for physical activity among middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Profiles were defined by two aspects of outcome expectancy including domain dimensionality and temporality, given the emphasis on social connectedness and the shortened future-time perception in this population. Design: Cross-sectional survey design. Methods: Participants included 300 Chinese adults aged 50 years or above, recruited in Hong Kong. Participants were asked to indicate their outcome expectancy for physical activity in physical, social and self-evaluative domains, rate the immediacy of each outcome expectancy item, and then report their physical activity for the past week. A latent class analysis was used to identify the number of profiles and profile characteristics, and to examine the predictors of the profile memberships and effects of the memberships on physical activity. Results: Results suggested four profiles, including low, moderate, delayed-high and immediate-high expectancy classes. Temporality, rather than domain dimensionality, was essential in defining the profiles. Interdependent self-construal and future-time perception were predictive of the profile memberships. People with immediate-high expectancy were more physically active than those in other expectancy classes. Conclusions: This study provided supporting evidence for the temporal self-regulation theory, and demonstrated the importance of immediate outcomes. More research attention in physical activity promotion should be given to the temporal dimension, especially for older adults who perceive future time as more limited. New directions to enhance outcome expectancies, especially for this population, also need further investigation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Research Area(s)

  • Clustering, Future-time perception, Interdependent self-construal, Social cognitive models, Temporal proximity

Citation Format(s)