Distribution, characteristics, and worldwide inventory of dioxins in kaolin ball clays

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

20 Scopus Citations
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Author(s)

  • Yuichi Horii
  • Nobutoshi Ohtsuka
  • Kotaro Minomo
  • Kiyoshi Nojiri
  • Kurunthachalam Kannan
  • And 2 others
  • Paul K. S. Lam
  • Nobuyoshi Yamashita

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7517-7524
Journal / PublicationEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume45
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2011

Abstract

Distribution, characteristics, and global inventory of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs] and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls) in kaolin clays collected from 10 countries were investigated. Dioxins were found in all kaolin clay samples analyzed, at total concentrations ranging from 1.2 pg/g (Brazil) to 520,000 pg/g (USA). Dioxin concentrations in kaolin clays from a few countries (e.g., Brazil and UK) were lower than those reported for background soils in Japan. Dioxin profiles in kaolin clays were characterized by the domination of the congener octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and the concentrations of other congeners decreased in the order of reduction in the levels of chlorination. Furthermore, specific distribution of congeners, with predominant proportions of 1,4,6,9-substituted PCDDs within each homologue group, was found in most clay samples. The ratios of concentrations of PCDD to PCDF and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD to 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD indicated differences in the profiles found for anthropogenic sources (including pentachlorophenol) and kaolin clays. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs in kaolin clays, except for American ball clays, did not exceed the environmental criteria set by the Law Concerning Special Measures against Dioxins in Japan. Based on the average concentrations measured in our study, inventories of PCDD/Fs from the production/usage of ball clays on a global scale were estimated to be 650 kg/yr; the corresponding value on a TEQ basis is 2400 g-TEQ/yr. More than 480 kg of OCDD is estimated to be released annually from the production of kaolin clays worldwide, suggesting that kaolin clays can be a major contributor for additional source of dioxins, especially OCDD, in the environment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Citation Format(s)

Distribution, characteristics, and worldwide inventory of dioxins in kaolin ball clays. / Horii, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Minomo, Kotaro; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lam, Paul K. S.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 45, No. 17, 01.09.2011, p. 7517-7524.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review