Distributed energy trading in microgrids : A game-theoretic model and its equilibrium analysis

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Original languageEnglish
Article number2387340
Pages (from-to)3524-3533
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number6
Online published1 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015


This paper proposes a distributed mechanism for energy trading among microgrids in a competitive market. We consider multiple interconnected microgrids in a region where, at a given time, some microgrids have superfluous energy for sale or to keep in storage facilities, whereas some other microgrids wish to buy additional energy to meet local demands and/or storage requirements. Under our approach, sellers lead the competition by independently deciding the amount of energy for sale subject to a tradeoff between the attained satisfaction from the received revenue and that from the stored energy. Buyers follow the sellers' actions by independently submitting a unit price bid to the sellers. Correspondingly, the energy is allocated to the buyers in proportion to their bids, whereas the revenue is allocated to the sellers in proportion to their sales. We study the economic benefits of such an energy trading mechanism by analyzing its hierarchical decisionmaking scheme as a multileader-multifollower Stackelberg game. We show that distributing the energy based on a well-defined utility function converges to a unique equilibrium solution for maximizing the payoff of all participating microgrids. This game-theoretic study provides an incentive for energy trading among microgrids in future power grids. 0278-0046

Research Area(s)

  • Energy trading, Equilibrium analysis, Microgrids, Stackelberg game