Development of artificial bone graft via in vitro endochondral ossification (ECO) strategy for bone repair

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Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Article number100893
Journal / PublicationMaterials Today Bio
Volume23
Online published3 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Link(s)

Abstract

Endochondral ossification (ECO) is a form of bone formation whereby the newly deposited bone replaces the cartilage template. A decellularized artificial cartilage graft (dLhCG), which is composed of hyaline cartilage matrixes, has been developed in our previous study. Herein, the osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived MSCs in the dLhCG through chondrogenic differentiation, chondrocyte hypertrophy, and subsequent transdifferentiation induction has been investigated by simulating the physiological processes of ECO for repairing critical-sized bone defects. The MSCs were recellularized into dLhCGs and subsequently allowed to undergo a 14-day proliferation period (mrLhCG). Following this, the mrLhCG constructs were subjected to two distinct differentiation induction protocols to achieve osteogenic differentiation: chondrogenic medium followed by chondrocytes culture medium with a high concentration of fetal bovine serum (CGCC group) and canonical osteogenesis inducing medium (OI group). The formation of a newly developed artificial bone graft, ossified dLhCG (OsLhCG), as well as its capability of aiding bone defect reconstruction were characterized by in vitro and in vivo trials, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry, the greater omentum implantation in nude mice, and repair for the critical-sized femoral defects in rats. The results reveal that the differentiation induction of MSCs in the CGCC group can realize in vitro ECO through chondrogenic differentiation, hypertrophy, and transdifferentiation, while the MSCs in the OI group, as expected, realize ossification through direct osteogenic differentiation. The angiogenesis and osteogenesis of OsLhCG were proved by being implanted into the greater omentum of nude mice. Besides, the OsLhCG exhibits the capability to achieve the repair of critical-size femoral defects. © 2023 The Author(s).

Research Area(s)

  • Biomaterials, Endochondral ossification, Hypertrophic chondrocytes, Regeneration medicine, Scaffold, Tissue engineering, Transdifferentiation

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