Design of a Liquid-Driven Laser Scanner with Low Voltage Based on Liquid-Infused Membrane

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

View graph of relations

Related Research Unit(s)


Original languageEnglish
Article number2200259
Journal / PublicationAdvanced Intelligent Systems
Issue number1
Online published9 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023



Laser energy is commonly used in tissue ablation, wound suturing, and other precise manipulations during surgery. However, currently available laser scanners require further improvements in terms of miniaturization, driving voltage, and stability to steer the laser beam accurately within a constrained environment. Herein, the development of a liquid-driven laser scanner installed on the end effector of a continuum endoscope to perform fast and reliable laser steering is proposed. The developed laser scanner is 7 mm in diameter and 7 mm in length, and it is actuated with a voltage lower than 15 V due to the liquid-infused membrane. The miniature size and low driving voltage of the proposed laser scanner facilitate safe laser-assisted surgery in confined spaces. A theoretical model is established to predict laser spot position quantitatively, and laser steering ability is also tested experimentally. The fiber-delivered laser beam can be steered for 21.2° (±10.6°) with a standard deviation of 0.3° in 1000 cycles, demonstrating excellent stability. A laser steering speed of up to 27.3 mm s-1 and a reflection loss of less than 3.1% are achieved.

Research Area(s)

  • continuum endoscopes, laser scanners, liquid-infused membranes, optofluidic prism, PRISM, FABRICATION, LENS

Download Statistics

No data available