Demonstration of Er3+ diffusivity and solubility increases in off-congruent, Li-deficient LiNbO3 crystal

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1524-1531
Journal / PublicationJournal of Materials Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2011


We demonstrate Er3+ diffusivity and solubility increases in off-congruent, Li-deficient LiNbO3 crystal. Li-poor vapor transport equilibration was used to reduce Li2O content in initial congruent crystals. Local Er3+ in-diffusion was then performed in a wet O 2 atmosphere. Before and after the Er3+ diffusion procedure, surface Li2O content was evaluated from measured birefringence. The results show that the Er3+ diffusion procedure resulted in 0.3-0.5 mol% Li2O content loss at crystal surface. Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to measure the Er3+ depth profiles, from which the diffusivity and solubility are determined. It is shown that the Er3+ diffusivity is nearly doubled and the solubility increases at least 0.6 mol% as the Li2O content decreases by 1.0 mol%. From the known Li2O content reduction, the solubility increase is also predicted and the results show that the predicted data are considerably smaller than the experimental results, suggesting that the Er3+ ions occupy also the Nb5+ site, besides the Li+ site. © Materials Research Society 2011.

Research Area(s)

  • Crystal, Diffusion, Er