Cyclometalated iridium(III) diimine bis(biotin) complexes as the first luminescent biotin-based cross-linkers for avidin

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)700-709
Journal / PublicationInorganic Chemistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2007


Four luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) diimine complexes [Ir(N-C)2(N-N)](PF6) (HN-C = 2-(4-(N-((2-biotinamido) ethyl)aminomethyl)phenyl)pyridine, Hppy-4-CH2NHC2NH- biotin, N-N = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, Me4-phen (1a); N-N = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, Ph2-phen (2a); HN-C = 2-(4-(N-((6-biotinamido)hexyl)aminomethyl)phenyl)pyridine, Hppy-4-CH 2NHC6NH-biotin, N-N = Me4-phen (1b); N-N = Ph2-phen (2b)), each containing two biotin units, have been synthesized and characterized. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of these complexes have been investigated. Photoexcitation of these iridium(III) diimine bis(biotin) complexes in fluid solutions at 298 K and in alcohol glass at 77 K resulted in intense and long-lived luminescence. The emission is assigned to a triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (3MLCT) (dπ(lr) → π* (N-N)) excited state. The emissive states of complexes 1a,b are probably mixed with some 3IL (π → π*) (Me4-phen) character. The interactions of these iridium(III) diimine bis(biotin) complexes with avidin have been studied by 4′-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA) assays and emission titrations. The potential for these complexes to act as cross-linkers for avidin has been examined by resonance-energy transfer- (RET-) based emission quenching experiments, microscopy studies using avidin-conjugated microspheres, and HPLC analysis. © 2007 American Chemical Society.