Crash injury severity prediction considering data imbalance : A Wasserstein generative adversarial network with gradient penalty approach

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Ye Li
  • Zhanhao Yang
  • Lu Xing
  • Fei Liu
  • Dan Wu
  • Haifei Yang

Related Research Unit(s)

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Article number107271
Journal / PublicationAccident Analysis and Prevention
Volume192
Online published31 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Abstract

For each road crash event, it is necessary to predict its injury severity. However, predicting crash injury severity with the imbalanced data frequently results in ineffective classifier. Due to the rarity of severe injuries in road traffic crashes, the crash data is extremely imbalanced among injury severity classes, making it challenging to the training of prediction models. To achieve interclass balance, it is possible to generate certain minority class samples using data augmentation techniques. Aiming to address the imbalance issue of crash injury severity data, this study applies a novel deep learning method, the Wasserstein generative adversarial network with gradient penalty (WGAN-GP), to investigate a massive amount of crash data, which can generate synthetic injury severity data linked to traffic crashes to rebalance the dataset. To evaluate the effectiveness of the WGAN-GP model, we systematically compare performances of various commonly-used sampling techniques (random under-sampling, random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique and adaptive synthetic sampling) with respect to dataset balance and crash injury severity prediction. After rebalancing the dataset, this study categorizes the crash injury severity using logistic regression, multilayer perceptron, random forest, AdaBoost and XGBoost. The AUC, specificity and sensitivity are employed as evaluation indicators to compare the prediction performances. Results demonstrate that sampling techniques can considerably improve the prediction performance of minority classes in an imbalanced dataset, and the combination of XGBoost and WGAN-GP performs best with an AUC of 0.794 and a sensitivity of 0.698. Finally, the interpretability of the model is improved by the explainable machine learning technique SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanation), allowing for a deeper understanding of the effects of each variable on crash injury severity. Findings of this study shed light on the prediction of crash injury severity with data imbalance using data-driven approaches. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd.

Research Area(s)

  • Crash injury severity, Generative adversarial network, Imbalanced data, Sampling technique

Citation Format(s)

Crash injury severity prediction considering data imbalance: A Wasserstein generative adversarial network with gradient penalty approach. / Li, Ye; Yang, Zhanhao; Xing, Lu et al.
In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 192, 107271, 11.2023.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review