Copper-alumina Hybrid Nanofluid Droplet Phase Change Dynamics over Heated Plain Copper and Porous Residue Surfaces

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • F. R. Siddiqui
  • C. Y. Tso
  • H. H. Qiu
  • Christopher Y. H. Chao
  • S. C. Fu

Related Research Unit(s)


Original languageEnglish
Article number107795
Journal / PublicationInternational Journal of Thermal Sciences
Online published12 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


Droplet phase change is the key phenomenon for high heat transfer rates in spray or drop-wise cooling applications. Despite high cooling efficiency of the spray cooling technology, conventional fluids, such as water, cannot be used for thermal management of modern high heat flux devices due to their immense power density, resulting in early device failures. To address this issue, in this research, we experimentally study the evaporation performance for various volumes of the copper-alumina hybrid nanofluid (CAHF) droplet on a plain copper substrate and compare it with water (H2O) droplet in sub-boiling and boiling regimes (i.e., for substrate temperatures of 25–170C). We also numerically investigate and compare the internal velocity and thermal fields of CAHF and H2O droplets on a heated plain copper substrate. Besides the plain copper surface, we examine the phase change behaviour of the subsequent CAHF droplet over a heated residue surface that was obtained from the phase transition of the first CAHF droplet on a heated plain copper substrate. Our results demonstrate that the evaporation rate of CAHF droplets on a plain copper surface is up to 24% and an order of magnitude higher than water droplets in sub-boiling and nucleate boiling regimes, respectively. Moreover, the evaporation rate of the CAHF droplet on a residue surface increases up to 141% and 800% compared to that on a plain copper surface in sub-boiling and nucleate boiling regimes, respectively. Furthermore, the latent heat flux up to 10 times can be achieved using the CAHF droplet compared to H2O droplet on a plain copper substrate in the nucleate boiling region, making the CAHF a potential fluid for high heat flux cooling applications.  

Research Area(s)

  • Hybrid nanofluid, Droplet phase change, Heated residue, Latent heat flux, Marangoni convection

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