Computed Tomography Evaluation of Intracranial Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Ischemic Stroke-Its Distribution and Association with Vascular Risk Factors

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Henry Ka-Fung Mak
  • Chan-Wah Wong
  • Wai-Ming Wong
  • Jing Gu
  • Pek-Lan Khong
  • Bernard Poon-Lap Chan

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-163
Journal / PublicationJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Volume18
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

Objectives: Intracranial atherosclerosis has been suggested to be common in Asians. We apply a semi-quantitative CT scoring system to evaluate the degree of intracranial atherosclerotic calcification and determine its distribution, severity, and the associated risk factors. The clinical outcome of these patients after a 3-year follow-up was also evaluated. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients diagnosed clinically to have either a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke and underwent early computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were included into the prospective study. Two radiologists evaluated the axial CTA images for any calcification in the precavernous, cavernous and postcavernous segments of intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA), anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral as well as vertebrobasilar arteries, based on a standard CT scoring system for extent (0-4) and thickness (0-4). The composite CT score for extent and thickness of these vascular segments or vessels were recorded for all patients. The worst site (highest composite score) was chosen as the marker of the degree of intracranial atherosclerosis of each patient. The patients were then classified into mild, moderate, and severe groups, according to a composite CT score of 0-2, 3-5, and 6-8, respectively. These findings were gathered with clinical parameters and outcome after a 3-year follow-up period and corresponding statistical analyses were conducted. Results: The most severely affected vessel was found to be intracranial internal carotid arteries, and severe, moderate, and mild atherosclerosis were present in 16 (26.67%), 30 (50%), and 14 (23.33%) patients, respectively. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 10.6, P value = .004), and age (odds ratio = 1.07, P value = .02) were found to be significant risk factors for severe intracranial atherosclerosis. Two patients in the severe group, 3 patients in the moderate group, and 1 patient in the mild group were found to have stroke or TIA after a 3-year follow-up, but there was no significant difference among the 3 groups. Conclusion: Significant intracranial atherosclerosis as determined by severe CT calcification was common in a cohort of Chinese patients with TIA and minor stroke. Age and diabetes mellitus were independent significant risk factors, and this CT calcification score might serve as an early indicator of intracranial atherosclerotic disease. © 2009 National Stroke Association.

Research Area(s)

  • clinical outcome, computed tomography, Intracranial atherosclerosis, risk factors, stroke, TIA

Citation Format(s)

Computed Tomography Evaluation of Intracranial Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Ischemic Stroke-Its Distribution and Association with Vascular Risk Factors. / Ka-Fung Mak, Henry; Wong, Chan-Wah; Kai-Wing Yau, Kelvin; Wong, Wai-Ming; Gu, Jing; Khong, Pek-Lan; Poon-Lap Chan, Bernard.

In: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 18, No. 2, 03.2009, p. 158-163.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review