Comparison of homoclinic bifurcations between grid-following and grid-forming converters

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Jingxi Yang
  • Meng Huang
  • Dong Liu
  • Xikun Fu

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Original languageEnglish
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Online published19 Jun 2023
Publication statusOnline published - 19 Jun 2023



A second-order model is developed to describe the essential behavior of the grid-following converter (GFLC) and the grid-forming converter (GFMC) for studying the synchronization characteristics of grid-connected converter systems. In this paper, a general set of criteria in terms of the manifolds and saddle quantity is derived for studying the homoclinic bifurcation behavior of GFLCs and GFMCs. It is shown that three unstable periodic orbits and two homoclinic bifurcations may exist for the GFLC, while only one stable periodic orbit and one homoclinic bifurcation may exist for the GFMC. It is also found that after the onset of the first homoclinic bifurcation, the stable equilibrium point (SEP) is surrounded by the stable manifolds of the unstable equilibrium point (UEP), which forms the SEP's basin of attraction, for both GFLCs and GFMCs. In this case, the converters may lose their synchronization if the trajectory crosses over the UEP. Therefore, system parameters should be designed to avoid the onset of the aforementioned bifurcation so that the SEP's basin of attraction can be significantly enlarged to contain the UEP. As a result, the GFLC or GFMC can eventually resynchronize with the grid even when its trajectory passes the UEP. Finally, experimental results are provided to verify these theoretical findings. © 2023 IEEE.

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