Comparison of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) product distributions from guaiacol oxidation by non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrate

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2859-2875
Journal / PublicationAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume23
Issue number4
Online published2 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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Abstract

Aromatic carbonyls (e.g., methoxybenzaldehydes), an important class of photosensitizers, are abundant in the atmosphere. Photosensitization and nitrate-mediated photo-oxidation can occur simultaneously, yet studies about their interactions, particularly for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation, remain limited. This study compared non-phenolic (3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, DMB) and phenolic (vanillin, VL) methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqSOA formation via guaiacol (GUA) oxidation in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrate (AN) under atmospherically relevant cloud and fog conditions. GUA oxidation by triplet excited states of DMB ((DMB)-D-3*) (GUA + DMB) was ∼4 times faster and exhibited greater light absorption than oxidation by (VL)-V-3* (GUA + VL). Both GUA + DMB and GUA + VL formed aqSOA composed of oligomers, functionalized monomers, oxygenated ring-opening species, and N-containing products in the presence of AN. The observation of N-heterocycles such as imidazoles indicates the participation of ammonium in the reactions. The majority of generated aqSOA comprises potential brown carbon (BrC) chromophores. Oligomerization and functionalization dominated in GUA + DMB and GUA + VL, but functionalization appeared to be more important in GUA + VL due to contributions from VL itself. AN did not significantly affect the oxidation kinetics, but it had distinct effects on the product distributions, likely due to differences in the photosensitizing abilities and structural features of DMB and VL. In particular, the more extensive fragmentation in GUA + DMB than in GUA + VL likely generated more N-containing products in GUA + DMB + AN. In GUA + VL + AN, the increased oligomers may be due to VL-derived phenoxy radicals induced by ·OH or ·NO2 from nitrate photolysis. Furthermore, increased nitrated products observed in the presence of both DMB or VL and AN than in AN alone imply that photosensitized reactions may promote nitration. This work demonstrates how the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation via non-carbonyl phenol oxidation. Potential interactions between photosensitization and AN photolysis were also elucidated. These findings facilitate a better understanding of photosensitized aqSOA formation and highlight the importance of AN photolysis in these reactions.

Research Area(s)

  • PHASE PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION, TRIPLET EXCITED-STATE, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, IONIZATION MASS-SPECTROMETRY, BIOMASS BURNING AEROSOLS, ELECTROSPRAY-IONIZATION, MOLECULAR COMPOSITION, WOOD SMOKE, OPTICAL-PROPERTIES, CHEMISTRY

Citation Format(s)

Comparison of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) product distributions from guaiacol oxidation by non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrate. / Mabato, Beatrix Rosette Go; Li, Yong Jie; Huang, Dan Dan et al.
In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2023, p. 2859-2875.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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