CityU corpus of essay drafts of English language learners : a corpus of textual revision in second language writing

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

15 Scopus Citations
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  • Amir Zeldes
  • Marc Reznicek
  • Anke Lüdeling

Related Research Unit(s)


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-683
Journal / PublicationLanguage Resources and Evaluation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2015


Learner corpora consist of texts produced by non-native speakers. In addition to these texts, some learner corpora also contain error annotations, which can reveal common errors made by language learners, and provide training material for automatic error correction. We present a novel type of error-annotated learner corpus containing sequences of revised essay drafts written by non-native speakers of English. Sentences in these drafts are annotated with comments by language tutors, and are aligned to sentences in subsequent drafts. We describe the compilation process of our corpus, present its encoding in TEI XML, and report agreement levels on the error annotations. Further, we demonstrate the potential of the corpus to facilitate research on textual revision in L2 writing, by conducting a case study on verb tenses using ANNIS, a corpus search and visualization platform.

Research Area(s)

  • Corpus search and visualization, English as a second language, Feedback, Learner corpus, Multi-layer corpus annotation, Textual revision

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