Chemical characterization and redox potential of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) in underground and ground-level rail systems of the Los Angeles metro

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Winnie Kam
  • Zhi Ning
  • Martin M. Shafer
  • James J. Schauer
  • Constantinos Sioutas

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6769-6776
Journal / PublicationEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume45
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2011
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

A campaign was conducted to assess personal exposure of coarse (2.5 μm <d p <10 μm) and fine (d p <2.5 μm) PM for two lines of the L.A. Metro-a subway (red) and light-rail (gold) line. Concurrent measurements were taken at University of Southern California (USC) to represent ambient conditions. A comprehensive chemical analysis was performed including total and water-soluble metals, inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and organic compounds. Mass balance showed that in coarse PM, iron makes up 27%, 6%, and 2% of gravimetric mass for the red line, the gold line, and USC, respectively; in fine PM, iron makes up 32%, 3%, and 1%. Ambient air is the primary source of inorganic ions and organic compounds for both lines. Noncrustal metals, particularly Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, Cd, and Eu, were elevated for the red line and, to a lesser degree, the gold line. Mo exhibited the greatest crustal enrichment factors. The enriched species were less water-soluble on the red line than corresponding species on the gold line. Bivariate analysis showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity is strongly correlated with water-soluble Fe (R 2 = 0.77), Ni (R 2= 0.95), and OC (R 2= 0.92). A multiple linear regression model (R 2 = 0.94, p <0.001) using water-soluble Fe and OC as predictor variables was developed to explain the variance in ROS. In addition, PM from the red line generates 65% and 55% more ROS activity per m 3 of air than PM from USC and the gold line, respectively; however, one unit of PM mass from the gold line may be as intrinsically toxic as one unit of PM from the red line. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Citation Format(s)

Chemical characterization and redox potential of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM) in underground and ground-level rail systems of the Los Angeles metro. / Kam, Winnie; Ning, Zhi; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 45, No. 16, 15.08.2011, p. 6769-6776.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review