Built environment factors moderate pandemic fatigue in social distance during the COVID-19 pandemic : A nationwide longitudinal study in the United States

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number104690
Journal / PublicationLandscape and Urban Planning
Online published17 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) remain some of the most effective measures for coping with the ever-changing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Pandemic fatigue, which manifests as the declined willingness to follow the recommended protective behaviors (e.g., keeping social distance policies, wearing masks), has commanded increasing attention from researchers and policymakers after the prolonged NPIs and COVID-19 worldwide. However, long-term changes in pandemic fatigue are not well understood, especially amidst the ever-changing pandemic landscape. Built environment factors have been shown to positively affect mental and physical health, but it is still unclear whether built environments can moderate pandemic fatigue. In this study, we used Google mobility data to investigate longitudinal trends of pandemic fatigue in social distance since the onset of NPIs enforcement in the United States. The results indicated that pandemic fatigue continu-ously worsened over nearly two years of NPIs implementation, and a sharp increase occurred after the vacci-nation program began. Additionally, we detected a significant moderation effect of greenspace and urbanicity levels on pandemic fatigue. People living in areas with high levels of greenness or urbanicity experienced lower levels of pandemic fatigue. These findings not only shed new light on the effects of greenness and urbanicity on COVID-19 pandemic fatigue, but also provide evidence for developing more tailored and effective strategies to cope with pandemic fatigue.

Research Area(s)

  • Pandemic fatigue, Social distance, Built environment, Green space, Urbanicity, Moderation effect

Citation Format(s)