Blockchain for the metaverse : A Review

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

38 Scopus Citations
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  • Thien Huynh-The
  • Thippa Reddy Gadekallu
  • Gokul Yenduri
  • Pasika Ranaweera
  • Quoc-Viet Pham
  • Daniel Benevides da Costa
  • Madhusanka Liyanage

Related Research Unit(s)


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-419
Journal / PublicationFuture Generation Computer Systems
Online published14 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023



Since Facebook officially changed its name to Meta in Oct. 2021, the metaverse has become a new norm of social networks and three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds. The metaverse aims to bring 3D immersive and personalized experiences to users by leveraging many pertinent technologies. Despite great attention and benefits, a natural question in the metaverse is how to secure its users’ digital content and data. In this regard, blockchain is a promising solution owing to its distinct features of decentralization, immutability, and transparency. To better understand the role of blockchain in the metaverse, we aim to provide an extensive survey on the applications of blockchain for the metaverse. We first present a preliminary to blockchain and the metaverse and highlight the motivations behind the use of blockchain for the metaverse. Next, we extensively discuss blockchain-based methods for the metaverse from technical perspectives, such as data acquisition, data storage, data sharing, data interoperability, and data privacy preservation. For each perspective, we first discuss the technical challenges of the metaverse and then highlight how blockchain can help. Moreover, we investigate the impact of blockchain on key-enabling technologies in the metaverse, including Internet-of-Things, digital twins, multi-sensory and immersive applications, artificial intelligence, and big data. We also present some major projects to showcase the role of blockchain in metaverse applications and services. Finally, we present some promising directions to drive further research innovations and developments toward the use of blockchain in the metaverse in the future. © 2023 The Author(s).

Research Area(s)

  • Blockchain, Metaverse, Privacy, Smart contracts, Vertical applications

Citation Format(s)

Blockchain for the metaverse: A Review. / Huynh-The, Thien; Gadekallu, Thippa Reddy; Wang, Weizheng et al.
In: Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 143, 06.2023, p. 401-419.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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