Bioconcentration factors and plant–water partition coefficients of munitions compounds in barley

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal

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Author(s)

  • Tifany L. Torralba-Sanchez
  • Dave T.F. Kuo
  • Herbert E. Allen
  • Dominic M. Di Toro

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)538-546
Journal / PublicationChemosphere
Volume189
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Abstract

Plants growing in the soils at military ranges and surrounding locations are exposed, and potentially able to uptake, munitions compounds (MCs). The extent towhich a compound is transferred from the environment into organisms such as plants, referred to as bioconcentration, is conventionally measured through uptake experiments with field/synthetic soils. Multiple components/phases that vary among different soil types and affect the bioavailability of the MC, however, hinder the ability to separate the effects of soil characteristics from the MC chemical properties on the resulting plant bioconcentration. To circumvent the problem, this work presents a protocol to measure steady state bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for MCs in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using inert laboratory sand rather than field/synthetic soils. Three MCs: 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (2,4-DNAN), and two munition elike compounds (MLCs): 4-nitroanisole (4-NAN) and 2-methoxy-5-nitropyridine (2-M-5-NPYNE) were evaluated. Approximately constant plant biomass and exposure concentrations were achieved within a one emonth period that produced steady state log BCF values: 0.62 ± 0.02, 0.70 ± 0.03, 1.30 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.03, and 0.40 ± 0.05 L kgplant dwt-1 for TNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,4-DNAN, 4-NAN, and 2-M-5-NPYNE, respectively. Furthermore, results suggest that the upperebounds of the BCFs can be estimated within an order of magnitude by measuring the partitioning of the compounds between barley biomass and water. This highlights the importance of partition equilibrium as a mechanism for the uptake of MCs and MLCs by barley from interstitial water. The results from this work provide chemically meaningful data for prediction models able to estimate the bioconcentration of these contaminants in plants.

Research Area(s)

  • BCF, Partitioning, Plant uptake, Soil, Water–sand exposure

Citation Format(s)

Bioconcentration factors and plant–water partition coefficients of munitions compounds in barley. / Torralba-Sanchez, Tifany L.; Kuo, Dave T.F.; Allen, Herbert E.; Di Toro, Dominic M.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 189, 12.2017, p. 538-546.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal