Bioaccumulation, Biotransformation, and Toxicity of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in Early Life-Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Hongling Liu
  • Song Tang
  • Xinmei Zheng
  • Yuting Zhu
  • Zhiyuan Ma
  • And 6 others
  • Chunsheng Liu
  • Markus Hecker
  • David M. V. Saunders
  • John P. Giesy
  • Xiaowei Zhang
  • Hongxia Yu

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1823 - 1833
Journal / PublicationEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume49
Issue number3
Online published21 Jan 2015
Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2015

Abstract

2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 6-hydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47), and 6-methoxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-MeO-BDE-47) are the most detected congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), OH-BDEs, and MeO-BDEs, respectively, in aquatic organisms. Although it has been demonstrated that BDE-47 can interfere with certain endocrine functions that are mediated through several nuclear hormone receptors (NRs), most of these findings were from mammalian cell lines exposed in vitro. In the present study, embryos and larvae of zebrafish were exposed to BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 6-MeO-BDE-47 to compare their accumulation, biotransformation, and bioconcentration factors (BCF) from 4 to 120 hpf. In addition, effects on expression of genes associated with eight different pathways regulated by NRs were investigated at 120 hpf. 6-MeO-BDE-47 was most bioaccumulated and 6-OH-BDE-47, which was the most potent BDE, was least bioaccumulated. Moreover, the amount of 6-MeO-BDE-47, but not BDE-47, transformed to 6-OH-BDE-47 increased in a time-dependent manner, approximately 0.01%, 0.04%, and 0.08% at 48, 96, and 120 hpf, respectively. Expression of genes regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was affected in larvae exposed to 6-OH-BDE-47, whereas genes regulated by AhR, ER, and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were altered in larvae exposed to BDE-47. The greatest effect on expression of genes was observed in larvae exposed to 6-MeO-BDE-47. Specifically, 6-MeO-BDE-47 affected the expression of genes regulated by AhR, ER, AR, GR, and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRa). These pathways were mostly down-regulated at 2.5 mu M. Taken together, these results demonstrate the importance of usage of an internal dose to assess the toxic effects of PBDEs. BDE-47 and its analogs elicited distinct effects on expression of genes of different hormone receptor-mediated pathways, which have expanded the knowledge of different mechanisms of endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic vertebrates. Because some of these homologues are natural products, assessments of risks of anthropogenic PBDE need to be made against the background of concentrations from naturally occurring products. Even though PBDEs are being phased out as flame retardants, the natural products remain.

Citation Format(s)

Bioaccumulation, Biotransformation, and Toxicity of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in Early Life-Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). / Liu, Hongling; Tang, Song; Zheng, Xinmei; Zhu, Yuting; Ma, Zhiyuan; Liu, Chunsheng; Hecker, Markus; Saunders, David M. V.; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49, No. 3, 03.02.2015, p. 1823 - 1833.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review