Beats-to-Beats Estimation of Blood Pressure during Supine Cycling Exercise Using a Probabilistic Nonparametric Method

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number9509499
Pages (from-to)115655-115663
Journal / PublicationIEEE Access
Online published9 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021



Blood pressure (BP) is an important clinical vital sign that varies from beat-to-beat. Nevertheless, these variations cannot be captured by the conventional cuff-based BP monitors. This study proposes and evaluates novel cuffless frameworks to continuously estimate the 10-beat averaged systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during dynamic exercise by fusing information from multiple biosensors using five machine learning algorithms. Over 100 thousand beats of data were collected from 62 subjects (aged 59 ± 10 years), each underwent a maximal exercise stress test. The average length of recording for each subject was 35 minutes. The BP ranges were 75-280 mmHg for SBP and 36-157 mmHg for DBP respectively. Multiple physiological parameters were measured continuously and used as inputs to five machine learning algorithms for estimating the 10-beat SBP and DBP averages before, during and after the cycling exercise. The mean absolute error (MAE) of Gaussian process regression (GPR) model was 4.8 mmHg and 3.4 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. The MAE of multiple linear regression (MLR), regression tree (RT), ensemble of trees (ETs), and support vector machine (SVM) models varied from 6.1 mmHg to 17.6 mmHg and from 4.0 mmHg to 9.7 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. The GPR model outperformed the other four models and showed promising results in estimating the 10-beat averages of both SBP and DBP without a cuff in a general elderly population under dynamic conditions.

Research Area(s)

  • AI-doscopist, big data analytics, cuffless blood pressure, machine learning, sensor network, wearable sensing

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