Bacterial Transcription Factors Bind to Coding Regions and Regulate Internal Cryptic Promoters

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Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
Journal / PublicationmBio
Volume13
Issue number5
Online published6 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022

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Abstract

Transcription factors (TFs) regulate transcription by binding to the specific sequences at the promoter region. However, the mechanisms and functions of TFs binding within the coding sequences (CDS) remain largely elusive in prokaryotes. To this end, we collected 409 data sets for bacterial TFs, including 104 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) assays and 305 data sets from the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) in seven model bacteria. Interestingly, these TFs displayed the same binding capabilities for both coding and intergenic regions. Subsequent biochemical and genetic experiments demonstrated that several TFs bound to the coding regions and regulated the transcription of the binding or adjacent genes. Strand-specific RNA sequencing revealed that these CDS-binding TFs regulated the activity of the cryptic promoters, resulting in the altered transcription of the corresponding antisense RNA. TF RhpR hindered the transcriptional elongation of a subgenic transcript within a CDS. A ChIP-seq and Ribo-seq coanalysis revealed that RhpR influenced the translational efficiency of binding genes. Taken together, the present study reveals three regulatory mechanisms of CDS-bound TFs within individual genes, operons, and antisense RNAs, which demonstrate the variability of the regulatory mechanisms of TFs and expand upon the complexity of bacterial transcriptomes.

IMPORTANCE Although bacterial TFs regulate transcription by binding to specific sequences at the promoter region, little is known about the mechanisms and functions of TFs binding within the CDS. In this study, we show that bacterial TFs have same binding pattern in both CDS and promoter regions, and we reveal three regulatory mechanisms of CDS-bound TF that together demonstrate the complexity of the regulatory mechanisms of bacterial TFs and the wide spread of internal cryptic promoters in CDS.

Research Area(s)

  • ChIP-seq, coding region binding TFs, cryptic promoter, transcriptional regulation, FACTORS REPRESS TRANSCRIPTION, CHIP-SEQ, III SECRETION, H-NS, REVEALS, CHROMATIN, SYSTEM, RHPR

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