Assessment methodology for dynamic occupancy adaptive HVAC control in subway stations integrating passenger flow simulation into building energy modeling

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number113667
Journal / PublicationEnergy and Buildings
Online published23 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in subway stations are often pre-scheduled to non-discriminatorily control large areas, ignoring uneven and dynamic thermal demand. Although building energy modeling (BEM) contributes to optimizing HVAC design and operation, it is limited in investigating dynamic occupancy adaptive HVAC control strategies in large open subway stations. This research formalized an integrated thermal control methodology (ITCM) that integrates passenger flow simulation and BEM to assess the dynamic occupancy adaptive HVAC control strategies for subway stations. To evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of ITCM, we developed a prototype coupling AnyLogic and EnergyPlus and carried out a simulation-based case study using a Hong Kong subway station. Based on the case study, we identified that ITCM enables subway station development and management teams to assess the comprehensive dynamic occupancy adaptive HVAC control strategies (e.g., decomposed thermal zones considering the layouts of diffusers and variable air volume boxes) in a timely and consistent manner. In addition, the case study results show that adaptive control with ceiling diffusers could save between 1.8% and 24.4% of cooling energy without considerably sacrificing thermal comfort. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.

Research Area(s)

  • Agent-based modeling, Building energy modeling, Integrated simulation, Occupancy adaptive HVAC control, Passenger, Subway station

Citation Format(s)