Aqueous multi-electron electrolyte for hybrid flow batteries with high energy and power densities

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number100018
Journal / PublicationJournal of Power Sources Advances
Online published21 Jul 2020
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020



Flow battery is a promising energy storage technology for facilitating utilization of renewable resources. While new types of flow batteries have been explored toward high energy density, hampering the power density due to high electrolyte viscosity and sluggish reaction kinetics. Discovery of an aqueous electrolyte with multi-electron transfer reaction is thus favorable for both high energy and power densities due to its multiple charge stored at the same concentration. Both criteria are crucial to improve the flexibility of cell design and widen the application potential. Herein, bismuth is pioneered as negative electrolyte (negolyte) for hybrid flow battery owing to its three-electron reaction and the significantly increased solubility in methanesulfonic acid. In conjunction with cerium electrolyte, a volumetric energy density of 90 Wh L−1 is achieved and simultaneously a high power density of 295 mW cm−2 at 90% state-of-charge is demonstrated using low-cost carbon electrode. Furthermore, a high volumetric capacity of 120 Ah L−1 is reached via adopting graphite felt, which is 100% of the theoretical specific capacity of 1.5 M bismuth negolyte.

Research Area(s)

  • Bismuth, Electron transfer, Energy density, Hybrid flow battery, Power density

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