An aqueous aluminum-ion electrochromic full battery with water-in-salt electrolyte for high-energy density

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Zhongqiu Tong
  • Ruqian Lian
  • Jianrui Feng
  • Hui Wang
  • Yongbing Tang
  • Chun-Sing Lee


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-507
Journal / PublicationEnergy Storage Materials
Online published3 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


Electrochromic batteries (EBs) have been developed as a technical breakthrough to solve the energy issues of storage and saving. Multivalent-ions (Zn2+, Mg2+ and Al3+) have recently demonstrated attractive properties for EBs due to their multiple-electron redox nature. However, still now, reported multivalent-ion EBs are typically assembled with a small-area metallic anode and a large-area electrochromic cathode. Non-uniformity of coloration and unstable metal plating/stripping hinder the developments of these devices. Additionally, insufficient energy/power density of EBs is a huge technical challenge needed to be overcome. In this work, we demonstrated a new aqueous aluminum-ion electrochromic full battery (AIEFB) to overcome the challenges. Systematic studies of density functional theory calculation, molecular dynamics simulation, electrochemical analysis, and mechanical measurements were conducted to optimize electrode materials and electrolyte. A water-in-salt (WIS) Al(OTF)3 electrolyte and a new electrochromic material couple of anodic amorphous WO3 (a-WO3) and cathodic indium hexacyanoferrate (InHCF) were exploited for AIEFB. The AIEFB demonstrated advantages of a high average discharge potential (1.06 V), an attractive energy density of 62.8 mWh m−2 at a power density of 2433.8 mW m−2, a high transmittance modulation of 63% at 600 nm, and a distinct transparent-to-deep blue coloration during the Al-ion shuttling processes.

Research Area(s)

  • Aqueous aluminum-ion battery, Energy storage, Full battery, Smart window, Water-in-salt electrolyte

Citation Format(s)