Achieving Convergence, Causality Preservation, and Intention Preservation in Real-Time Cooperative Editing Systems

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Chengzheng SUN
  • Xiaohua JIA
  • Yanchun ZHANG
  • Yun YANG
  • David CHEN

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-108
Journal / PublicationACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1998


Real-time cooperative editing systems allow multiple users to view and edit the same text/graphic/image/multimedia document at the same time from multiple sites connected by communication networks. Consistency maintenance is one of the most significant challenges in designing and implementing real-time cooperative editing systems. In this article, a consistency model, with properties of convergence, causality preservation, and intention preservation, is proposed as a framework for consistency maintenance in real-time cooperative editing systems. Moreover, an integrated set of schemes and algorithms, which support the proposed consistency model, are devised and discussed in detail. In particular, we have contributed (1) a novel generic operation transformation control algorithm for achieving intention preservation in combination with schemes for achieving convergence and causality preservation and (2) a pair of reversible inclusion and exclusion transformation algorithms for stringwise operations for text editing. An Internet-based prototype system has been built to test the feasibility of the proposed schemes and algorithms.

Research Area(s)

  • Algorithms, Causality preservation, computer-supported cooperative work, consistency maintenance, convergence, cooperative editing, Design, groupware systems, Human Factors, intention preservation, operational transformation, REDUCE

Citation Format(s)