A unified model of mean-time-to-failure for electromigration, thermomigration, and stress-migration based on entropy production

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Article number075109
Journal / PublicationJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number7
Online published16 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 21 Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes


We have revisited Black's equation of mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) for electromigration from the viewpoint that in irreversible processes, entropy production is the controlling behavior. We justify that the power factor on current density is n = 2, as given in the original Black's equation. Furthermore, on the basis of entropy production, we provide a unified model of MTTF for thermomigration and stress-migration. We note that up to now, no MTTF for thermomigration and stress-migration is given.