A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens
Related Research Unit(s)
|Journal / Publication||Journal of Hazardous Materials|
|Online published||3 Jul 2018|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Sep 2018|
|Link to Scopus||https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85049605422&origin=recordpage|
The process of toilet-flushing can generate flushing-associated water droplets which can potentially expose humans to pathogen-laden aerosols. Very little is known about such aerosol dissemination or the means for minimizing exposure to these aerosols. This study has evaluated the efficacy of ultraviolet waveband C (UV-C) for disinfection of flushing-generated pathogen-laden aerosols through tests with localized disinfection systems for airborne and surface contaminations. Three types of bacteria were chosen for investigation: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. Tests were conducted with UV-C tubes of 5 W and 10 W. High levels of disinfection efficacies were observed, ranging from 76% to 97% for bacteria-laden aerosols at sources of emission, and efficiencies of 53% to 79% for surface samples in localized systems. The results from the localized systems were further compared with those obtained with an upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) system. As it is important to note, the UV-C doses and ozone emissions for the localized systems were found well below the limits recommended in current guidelines. This research has shown that the disinfection of flushing-generated pathogen-laden aerosols in proximity to the source of emission was more effective than at the more distant sites where aerosols may be dispersed to the environment.
- Airborne contaminants, Flushing-generated water droplets, Localized UV-C disinfection, Pathogen disinfection, Toilet air quality, Upper-room germicidal irradiation
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 358, 15.09.2018, p. 389-396.
Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62) › 21_Publication in refereed journal
Lai, ACK, Nunayon, SS, Tan, TF & Li, WS 2018, 'A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens', Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 358, pp. 389-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.003
Lai, A. C. K., Nunayon, S. S., Tan, T. F., & Li, W. S. (2018). A pilot study on the disinfection efficacy of localized UV on the flushing-generated spread of pathogens. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 358, 389-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.003