A new UVC-LED system for disinfection of pathogens generated by toilet flushing

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)324-334
Journal / PublicationIndoor Air
Issue number2
Online published29 Sep 2020
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


A new disinfection system utilizing UVC-LED irradiation was developed. The system was affixed to the toilet seat, and it was challenged by three bacteria strains. Different configurations were tested: 3-LEDs, 5-LEDs (two variants), and 8-LEDs. To determine the arrangement designs of LEDs with the optimum efficacy, two variants of 5-LEDs configurations were additionally considered—uniform and concentrated (2-sided) distributions. It was noticed that disinfection efficacy initially increased with the number of LEDs, but with 8-LEDs, the trend became almost non-obvious for surface disinfection and just marginally increased for airborne disinfection. The mean efficiencies for the surface disinfection ranged from 55.17 ± 23.89% to 72.80 ± 4.13% for E. coli; 36.65 ± 2.99% to 50.05 ± 13.38% for S. typhimurium; and 8.81 ± 3.23% to 39.43 ± 9.33% for S. epidermidis. Likewise, the mean efficiencies for airborne disinfection ranged from 42.17 ± 8.18% to 70.70 ± 4.80%; 40.40 ± 17.90% to 58.31 ± 13.87%; and 24.16 ± 3.81% to 42.79 ± 10.20% for E. coli; S. typhimurium; and S. epidermidis, respectively. Furthermore, the efficacy of the uniform irradiation was nearly twice that of the concentrated irradiation for surface disinfection and 17.70% higher for airborne disinfection, when tested against E coli. Collectively, these very promising results showcased that this compact, sustainable, and localized disinfection system has a high potential for the next generation of disinfection devices.

Research Area(s)

  • airborne pathogens, light-emitting diode, localized disinfection, toilet hygiene, ultraviolet C