A laboratory study on mitigation of particulate matter, ammonia and airborne bacteria from litter of cage-free layer housing

Research output: Chapters, Conference Papers, Creative and Literary Works (RGC: 12, 32, 41, 45)32_Refereed conference paper (with host publication)peer-review

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Author(s)

  • Lilong Chai
  • Yang Zhao
  • Hongwei Xin
  • Tong Wang
  • Michelle Soupir

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAnimal Environment and Welfare
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of International Symposium
EditorsJi-Qin Ni, Teng-Teeh Lim, Chaoyuan Wang, Lingying Zhao
Place of PublicationBeijing
PublisherChina Agriculture Press
Pages97-104
ISBN (Print)9787109234599
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018
Externally publishedYes

Conference

Title2017 International Symposium on Animal Environment and Welfare (ISAEW 2017)
PlaceChina
CityChongqing
Period23 - 25 October 2017

Abstract

Concerns over animal welfare have led to pledges of sourcing cage-free only eggs by many U.S. food retailers and restaurants. Compared with the conventional cage, cage-free hen housing offers hens more space and opportunities to exercise their natural behaviors. However, cage-free housing poses many environmental challenges, including high particulate matter (PM), ammonia (NH3), and airborne bacteria (AB) levels. Spraying electrolyzed water (EW) on litter floor can mitigate PM and bacteria in cage-free hen houses; however, it may cause higher NH3 due to increase in litter moisture content. In this study, lab-scale experiments were conducted to assess the effect of EW spray dosage, pH, and free chlorine (FC) concentration on PM, NH3, and AB emissions of litter from cage-free hen houses. The results showed that higher spray dosages led to greater PM reduction (e.g., PM reduction of 71%, 81% and 89% immediately after EW spray at 25, 50 and 75 mL [kg dry litter]-1 d-1, respectively) but higher NH3 emissions. Spraying EW at the higher FC level led to lower AB. While application of lower pH liquid can reduce NH3, there are concerns about potential corrosive effect of the application on layer housing equipment. To address this issue, solid litter additive (PLT®) at three application rates (i.e., 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 kg [kg dry litter]-1 at litter depth of around 4–5 cm) along with spray of neutral-pH EW was tested for NH3 mitigation. Results to date show that the three application rates of the litter additive reduced NH3 generation/emission by 28–79%.

Research Area(s)

  • Air quality, laying hen, alternative hen housing, animal welfare, worker health

Citation Format(s)

A laboratory study on mitigation of particulate matter, ammonia and airborne bacteria from litter of cage-free layer housing. / Chai, Lilong; Zhao, Yang; Xin, Hongwei et al.
Animal Environment and Welfare: Proceedings of International Symposium. ed. / Ji-Qin Ni; Teng-Teeh Lim; Chaoyuan Wang; Lingying Zhao. Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 2018. p. 97-104.

Research output: Chapters, Conference Papers, Creative and Literary Works (RGC: 12, 32, 41, 45)32_Refereed conference paper (with host publication)peer-review