A Compact Gradient Refractive Index Metamaterial Lens for End-Fire Fan-Beam Radiation

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

8 Scopus Citations
View graph of relations



Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2339-2343
Number of pages5
Journal / PublicationIEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Issue number12
Online published8 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


This letter presents an end-fire fan-beam radiation antenna by utilizing a gradient refractive index metamaterial lens. The lens includes one core and two impedance matching layers which are both based on the proposed metamaterial unit cells with a large refractive index variation range. An incident wave is excited from the antenna source and propagates to the lateral side of the lens. Two parallel plates set for the TE1 mode condition are utilized such that E-plane radiating beam can be controlled. To validate our proposed design, a prototype working at 10 GHz is fabricated and measured. Measured results are in good agreement with the simulation. The height and thickness of the metamaterial lens are about 0.44 λ0 and 0.36 λ0, where λ0 is the wavelength of the center frequency in free space. The measured E- and H- planes 3 dB beamwidths are 25º and 82º at the center frequency, respectively. The measured peak gain of the antenna is about 11.1 dBi, which implies a 5.4 dB gain enhancement compared with initial radiation source. Furthermore, this lens offers a high aperture efficiency of 72.4%.

Research Area(s)

  • Antenna measurements, Antennas, Endfire antenna, fan-beam, gradient refractive index, lens antenna, Lenses, Metals, metamaterial, Metamaterials, metasurface, parallel plate, Refractive index, Substrates