A Ca-Ion Electrochromic Battery via a Water-in-Salt Electrolyte

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Original languageEnglish
Article number2104639
Journal / PublicationAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number41
Online published14 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2021


Multivalent-ion batteries with electrochromic functionality are an emerging green technology for development of low-carbon society. Compared to Mg2+, Zn2+ and Al3+, Ca2+ has a low polarization strength similar to that of Li+, therefore Ca2+ for electrochromism and battery can avoid kinetic issues caused by other multivalent-ions with high polarization strength. Here, by exploiting Ca-ion carriers for electrochromism and a water-in-salt (WIS) Ca(OTF)2 electrolyte for the first time, a new and safe aqueous Ca-ion electrochromic battery (CIEB) has been demonstrated. The WIS Ca(OTF)2 electrolyte demonstrates enhanced anion-cation interactions and decreased water activity. Vanadium oxide (VOx) and indium hexacyanoferrate (InHCF) films are respectively developed as anode and cathode because of their stable and high-rate Ca2+ insertion/extraction, as well as matched electrochromism. The CIEB demonstrates a stable and high-rate capability, a high energy density of 51.4 mWh m−2 at a power density of 1737.3 mW m−2, and a greenish yellow-to-black electrochromism. The presented results are beneficial for understanding redox kinetics in WIS electrolytes, and inspire researches on batteries and electrochromism with multivalent-ions.

Research Area(s)

  • aqueous batteries, Ca-ion redox, electrochromic batteries, multivalent-ion charge carrier, water-in-salt electrolytes

Citation Format(s)