1875 年に撤去された宗教施設としての中国式灯台――西嶼塔燈

A native Chinese lighthouse (or “Xiyu Pagoda Lighthouse”) as a religious facility of Taoism which was demolished in 1875

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • 大西蘭
  • 多賀友美
  • 景祥祜

Related Research Unit(s)

Detail(s)

Original languageJapanese
Pages (from-to)59-80
Number of pages22
Journal / Publication或問
Volume40
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Conference

TitleLighthouse Heritage Research Connections (LHRC)
LocationVirtual Conference
PlaceUnited States
CityChicago
Period29 June 2021

Abstract

本稿は、現在の台湾の澎湖県西嶼郷に1875 年まで存在した中国式の西嶼灯台(旧灯台)について、先行研究を踏まえ、中国語・英語・日本語の資料から次の通り明らかにした。旧灯台が道教の神である天上聖母(媽祖)を祀る宗教施設であった可能性、及びその神に供えるオイルランプの巨大な灯火の仕組みを、日本の史料から明らかにした。しかし、旧灯台が存在した時代の清国では、仏教ではない道教を異学とし、道教の宗教指導者を危険視して行政機関から排除する宗教政策がとられていた。そのことを清国の法典から明ら
かにした。旧灯台が創建された1779 年当時、西嶼にできた島民対象の道教の宗教施設に仏教の僧が送り込まれると、舟人が信仰する天上聖母を祀った旧灯台もその僧が管理した。そのことを中国語資料から導き出した。そして1875年、清国政府のイギリス人高官は旧灯台の隣に新灯台を建造すると、旧灯台を撤去した。その経緯を香港政府官報から明らかにした。
This paper investigated a native Chinese lighthouse (or “Xiyu Pagoda Lighthouse” ) located at Penghu County (Taiwan Prefecture in Qing Dynasty) which existed until 1875 by studying historical documents in different languages such as Chinese, English and Japanese which are preserved in different countries such as China, Japan and Britain. Japanese historical documents indicate that this native Chinese lighthouse would be a religious facility to worship Mazu, a Taoist goddess of the sea and also describe the mechanism of the oil lamp which can be seen from distance. The lamp is lit to worship Mazu. According to a Chinese historical document “Tongdian” of Qing Dynasty, it states that Qing Emperor favored Buddhism and did not approve Taoism in one of government organizations and therefore the Qing Emperor adopted a policy to eliminate Taoist leaders from the governmental office because Emperor regarded them as a threat to the Imperial Court. Another Chinese historical text on a stone stele reveals that around the year of 1779, when this native Chinese lighthouse was built, Qing government sent Buddhist monk to administer a native Chinese lighthouse, which might have been functioning as a facility of Taoism, a place for local people to worship Mazu. Government notices of 1875 and 1876 in “The HongKong Government Gazette” reveals the process of building a new lighthouse and demolishing a native Chinese lighthouse by following the order of British Officials in Qing Government.

Research Area(s)

  • 澎湖, 西嶼, 燈塔, 灯台, 清国, 日本, 天上聖母, 道教, 廟, 仏教, 浮図, Penghu, Xiyu, lighthouse, Qing Dynasty, Japan, Mazu, Taoism, Temple, Buddhism, Fútú

Citation Format(s)

1875 年に撤去された宗教施設としての中国式灯台――西嶼塔燈. / 大西蘭; 多賀友美; 景祥祜.

In: 或問, Vol. 40, 12.2021, p. 59-80.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review