洗钱罪司法适用的现状审视与理性反思 - 以中国裁判文书网155篇裁判文书为样本

Review and Rational Rumination on the Current Judicial Practice Fighting Against Money Laundering Crime

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

Detail(s)

Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)132-141
Number of pages10
Journal / Publication湖北警官学院学报
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

我国反洗钱罪名体系广义上包括刑法第312条、第191条和第349条等。《刑法修正案(十一)》对自洗钱入罪,是总体国家安全观下对国际反洗钱合作的践诺,意义重大。但是实证分析发现,刑法第312条仍是主体罪名,三罪名在司法适用上较为混乱。应当注意从上游犯罪范围和行为方式上区分三罪;自洗钱与他洗钱均为“故意”犯罪,但证明方式不同;第312条是其他两罪的一般法条,法条竞合时应当适用特别法条优于一般法条原则,第191条与第349条不是一般法条与特别法条关系,法条竞合时应择一重罪处罚;洗钱犯罪无入罪的数额标准,仍应坚持刑法的谦抑性原则;洗钱犯罪情节严重的数额标准之间应当兼顾刑罚平衡原则,合理确定各罪名情节严重的司法数额标准;适时重构洗钱犯罪罪名体系,取消第349条窝藏、转移、隐瞒毒赃罪,合理调配其余两罪的法定刑幅度。
China's anti-money laundering legislative system includes, in a broad sense, articles 312, 191 and 349 of the criminal law. The Criminal Law Amendment (11) criminalized self-money laundering, which is a salient practice to promote international anti-money laundering cooperation guided by a holistic approach to China’s national security. However, by empirical analysis. Article 312 of the criminal law is still predominantly used while the application of these three articles tend to intersect with each other in judicial procedure. We should heed the differences between these crimes inside the scope of upstream crimes and mode of behavior. Self-money laundering and money laundering for others are both intentional, with different standards to prove a person’s guilt. Article 312 is a general provision of the other two. When a certain behavior coincides with these three provisions, the principle that the special article is superior to the general article shall apply. The relation of article 191 and article 349 is not like general law versus special law. When the two provisions coincide, the severer charge shall be approved. Since there is no stipulation requiring how much money laundered could constitute money laundering, we should adhere to the principle of necessity in criminal law. How much money laundered could constitute severer level of the crime should be balanced between the three crimes in accordance with principle of balancing the crime and its penalty, and we should reasonably identify what the number of money laundered should be punished in severer level among the three crimes. Reshape the legislative system of money laundering crime in due time, abolish article 349, and modify the statutory punishment of the other two crimes in perspective.

Research Area(s)

  • 洗钱罪, 掩饰, 隐瞒犯罪所得, 自洗钱, 法条竞合, 罪名体系, Money Laundering, to Cover up or Conceal the Proceeds of Crime, Self-money Laundering, Overlap of Articles of Law, System of Crime Legislation