年轻人对移民更友好吗?对香港和上海的 “世代 — 双城” 比较

Are Young People More Friendly to Migrants? A Cohort Comparison Study Between Hong Kong and Shanghai

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

Detail(s)

Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)31-55
Journal / Publication社会
Volume41
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 20 Sep 2021

Abstract

对移民态度的问题,已有研究提出了政治经济学和政治心理学两大流派的多种具体理论假设,但忽略了"世代"这个重要的分析视角。一些研究发现年轻人对移民更友好,另一些研究发现并非如此,这表明,对世代效应的识别和解释必须联系年轻人所处的具体经济社会情境。本文首次对香港和上海进行"世代—双城"比较,并整合验证了已有文献提出的宏观经济环境、个体经济利益、财政或福利负担、群体威胁或接触、地方和国家认同等重要解释。研究发现,这些因素的交互作用确实使香港和上海的年轻世代对移民的态度呈现鲜明反差:上海的年轻人对移民更友好,香港的年轻人对移民更排斥。
Previous studies in political economy and political psychology on attitudes towards (im)migrants have put forward various theoretical hypotheses but have largely neglected the importance of cohort comparison. While some studies suggested that young people are more friendly towards (im)migrants, others had opposite findings. This suggests that the identification and interpretation of cohort effects must take into consideration of the specific socioeconomic conditions in which young people are located. In this paper, we compare cohort variations in attitudes towards (im)migrants in Hong Kong and Shanghai, two cities under “One country, Two systems” framework in China. We also examine previous explanations such as macroeconomic environment, individual economic interests, fiscal or welfare responsibilities, group threats or contacts, and local or national identity, and etc. We find that the interweaving effect of these factors resulted in differences among the young people in Hong Kong and Shanghai in their attitudes towards (im)migrants. Relative to older generations, young people in Shanghai are more acceptant than their counterparts in Hong Kong towards migrants. Such a difference can be partially explained by education, life satisfaction and local identity. The differences in the three factors as well as their associations are correlated to the acceptant or resistant attitudes towards (im)migrants, resulting in the cohort difference between the two global cities. In terms of magnitude of mediation effects, while education and life satisfaction have strong influences in Shanghai, local identity plays a dominant role in Hong Kong. Therefore, in order to alleviate negative attitudes towards (im)migrants, it is necessary to take measures in fundamentals such as boosting economic development and promoting equitable benefit distribution, restraining local identity and fostering dual identity, improving education and delivering inclusive values.

Research Area(s)

  • 移民, 世代, 香港, 上海, Migrants, Cohort, Hong Kong, Shanghai