Experimental Study and Fire Field Model for Graphdiyne Flame Retarded Spray Polyurethane Foam in Enclosure Fires

Project: Research

View graph of relations


The rising cost of energy for residential and office buildings coupled with the quest for “greener”buildings over the last decade has received much attention by building designers to find waysto improve, and conserve energy. It is estimated that the buildings sector accounts for about76% of electricity use, and 40% of energy consumption is associated with greenhouse gasemissions. Hence, the quest for greener buildings and insulations that reduces the energy loadof buildings is eminent.  The applications of Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) have been identified as the most cost-effectivemeans of improving the energy efficiency of residential and commercial buildings incountries like Spain, Canada, USA, and Japan. Its ubiquity in residential and commercialbuildings is due to the excellent chemical resistance, high strength-to-weight ratio, low density,low thermal conductivity (0.017-0.023), its comparative cost efficiency, and the huge energyconservative benefit. Also, the thickness of thermal insulation layer required to achieve a goodthermal insulation is one third less than the thickness required by other foams. SPF adheresstrongly to various building materials. Its structure consists of 90% enclosed cell structuremade of bubbles which effectively blocks the vapor permeation. SPF is resistant to weak acidsand alkalis making it very conducive in extreme environments.  However, the poor flame retardancy and the release of dense smoke and toxic volatiles by SPFin fires remain the major challenges. SPF has a low limiting oxygen index of 19.0% making ithighly susceptible to flames. It burns rapidly with a high heat release and a large amount offumes, which can lead to tragic casualties and huge economic losses in case of fire accidents.  This project aims to develop a novel flame retardant SPF with low smoke /toxic fumesproduction with high thermal insulation and excellent structural integrity for energyconservation. The phosphorus modified 2D carbon allotrope: graphdiyne (GDY) is proposedan innovative flame-retardant. Unlike other carbon allotropes, GDY has unique sp–sp2carbonatoms, uniform pores, and highly p-conjugated structure, which can be applied at a very lowloading (maximum, 1%) to SPF to reduce its burning behaviour, smoke and toxic volatilerelease. A novel fire field model fully incorporating multifuel combustion and the pyrolysismodels with Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) formulation in CFD will be developed withkinetics data from the Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulation of PGDY/SPF composite forcomprehensive fire risk analysis in building fire scenarios. 


Project number9043162
Grant typeGRF
Effective start/end date1/01/22 → …